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1.Important Vital Stains used in Cytological Techniques:
*EOSIN is used to stain Cytoplasm (Pink).
*FEULGEN'S STAIN is used to stain DNA(Purple).
*JANUS GREEN B is used to stain Mitochondria and Fungi(Green).
*METHYLENE BLUE is used to stain Golgi bodies and Yeast (Blue).
*TOLUDINE BLUE is used to stain RNA(Blue).
*HEMATOXYLINE is used to stain Nucleus and Cell Wall (Violet)

2.Absent (devoid of / lack of /not found )cases in plants :
*Phloem parenchyma, Phloem fibres Vascular cambium, Secondary growth and Shoot hairs( Trichomes) are absent in MONOCOTS.
*Xylem vessels or Trachae are absent in Gymnosperms EXCEPT Gnetum ,Ephedra and Welwitschia.
* Xylem fibres , Companion cells and Sieve tubes are absent in GYMNOSPERMS.
*Phloem fibres,Xylem fibres and Tracheids are absent in Dicot leaves.
* Vessels are absent in few angiopermic families Winteraceae,Tetracentraceae and Trochodendracae.

3.Terminology used in Pollination based on its agents :
*ANEMOPHILY: Pollination by Wind
*HYDROPHILY:  Pollination by Water
*CANTHAROPHILY: Pollination by Beetle
*PHALAENOPHILY: Pollination by Moths
*MELLITOPHILY: Pollination by Bees
*PSYCHOPHILY: Pollination by Butterflies
*MALACOPHILY: Pollination by Snails
*ORNITHOPHILY: Pollination by Birds
*CHIEROTEROPHILY: Pollination by Bats
*MYRMECOPHILY: Pollination by Ants.

4.Common Mendelian Genetic Ratios:
*Mendelian Monohybrid phenotypic ratio= 3:1
*Mendelian Monohybrid genotypic ratio=1:2:1
*Mendelian Monohybrid Test cross ratio (or) Recessive Back cross ratio ( Both phenotypic and genotypic ratios )=1:1
*Mendelian Dihybrid Test cross ratio(Both phenotypic and genotypic ratio)= 1:1:1:1
*Mendelian Dihybrid phenotypic ratio=9:3:3:1
*Mendelian Dihybrid genotypic ratio =1:2:1:2:4:2:1:2:1
* Mendelian Trihybrid phenotypic ratio= 27:9:9:9:3:3:3:1

5.Different types of plants based on its Habitat.
*CALCIPHYTES:Plants living in calcium rich alkaline soil.
*CRYOPHYTES:Plants living in ice surface.
*CRYPTOPHYTES: Plants living below the soil surface.
*CHASMOPHYTES:Plants living in rocky crevices .
*HALOPHYTES:Plants living in saline soils.
*HELIOPHYTES:Plants living in well lighted areas.(eg: Angiosperms)
*LITHOPHYTES:Plants living on rocky surfaces.
*OXYLOPHYTES:Plants living in acidic soils
*PSAMMOPHYTES: Plants living in sandy soils.
*SCIOPHYTES:Plants living in shadow areas ( eg: Bryophytes and Pteridophytes)
*HYDROPHYTES:Plants living in water.
*XEROPHYTES:Plants living in dry or xeric condition .
*MESOPHYTES: Plants living in moderate condition.
*EPIPHYTES: Plants living on another plant.
*HYGROPHYTES: Plants living in moist damp and shady places.Eg: Habenaria(Orchid) and Mosses(Bryophytes).

Mr.R.Soundarapandian, MSc, MEd, MPhil, 
PG Asst Zoology 
Sir MCTM Boys Higher Secondary School, 
Purasawalkam Chennai-84.

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