Hello Students: DAY-3 Evening Coffee with NEET




HELLO STUDENTS: DAY-3 Evening 

1. VARIOUS BLOOD PIGMENTS IN ANIMALS:
*HAEMOGLOBIN (Red)=Humans,other vertebrates like mammals and in Invertebrates(In Earthworm the pigment is dissolved in blood plasma).
*HAEMOCYANIN(Blue on oxygenation)=Arthropods (Spiders, Crustaceans like Limulus, Horseshoe Crab and Molluscs like Octopus and Squid.
*HEMERYTHRIN(Violet)=Marine invertebrates like Magelona,Peanut worm,Penis worm and Brachiopods.
*CHLOROCRUORIN(Green)=Annelids like Leech and marine polychaetes.
*VANADIUM(Green,Functionally less effective)=Herdmania.
*MYOHEMERYTHRIN( Violet in oxygenation)=Muscles of marine invertebrates.

2.TYPES OF SEX DETERMINATION IN ANIMALS:
*XX-XY type/System (Lygaeus Type)=Human beings and Drosophila (Fruit fly).
*XX-XO type=Crickets,Bugs,Cockroaches and Grasshoppers.
*ZO-ZZ type=Butterflies,certain moths and domestic chickens.
*ZW-ZZ type=Gypsy moth,Birds,Fishes and Reptiles like Komodo dragons.

3. IMPORTANT BIRTH CONTROL METHODS ADOPTED IN INDIA:
* ORAL CONTRACEPTIVE PILLS=SAHELI( contains non -steroidal CENTCHROMAN, produced by CDRI, Lucknow).
*Most successful and popular contraceptive method in India with success rate of 95 to 99% is =Intra Uterine Devices(IUDs).
*COPPER RELEASING IUDs=Multilode 375,Nova T,Cu T-380 A and CuT 380 Ag.
*HORMONE RELEASING IUDs(often called as Intrauterine systems (IUD)=Progestasert and LNG-20
*NON MEDICATED IUDs=Lippes loop
*VASECTOMY=Permanent birth control method in male.
*TUBECTOMY=Permanent birth control method in female.

4.SPECIAL CELLS FOUND IN HUMANS AND ANIMALS:
*Sertoli cells(or)Supporting cells(Testes)=Nourishes the developing sperms,Secret Inhibin and Androgen binding protein.
*Leydig cells(or)Interstitial cells(Testes)=Secrete Testosterone,Androstenedione and Dehydroepiandrosterone(DHEA).
*Oxyntic cells(or)Parietal cells(Stomach)=Secrete HCl.
*Kupffer cells(or)Kupffer-Browicz cells(Liver)=involved in phagocytosis and protect the liver cells.
*Alpha cells (Pancreas)=Secrete Glucagon.
*Beta cells (Pancreas)=Secrete Insulin
*Chromaffin cells(Adrenal medulla)=Secrete Adrenaline (Epinephrine), Noradrenaline (norepinephrine),Dopamine and Enkephalin.
*Glial cells(or)Neuroglia cells (Nervous system)= support and provide nutrients to nervous system.
*Mast cells(Wall of blood vessels)=Secrete Heparin and Histamine.
*Zymogenic cells (or)Peptic cells (or)Chief cells(Stomach)=Secrete gastric juice with Pepsinogen and Chymosin.
*Goblet cells(Respiratory and Digestive tracts)=Secrete mucus.
*Schwann cells (or)Neurilemma cells=Produce myelin sheath around neuronal axons.
*Chlorogogen cells (or) Y cells(Annelids like Earthworm)=Store glycogen,help in excretion and neutralize toxins like liver.
*Delta cells (D cells) or PP cells of Pancreas= Secrete Somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide.
*Ito cells (or) Hepatic Stellate cells(or)Lipocytes of liver = Stores fat or  and store Vitamin A as lipid droplets.
*Nephrocyte cells(or) C cells of Herdmania
= Help in excretion.
*Parafollicular cells (Thyroid gland)= Secret Thyrocalcitonin(or) Calcitonin.
*Clara cells(Lungs)=Provide secretary surfactants.
*Club cells(Lungs)=Secrete pulmonary surfactant,Uteroglobin.
*T-Cells(or)T-Helper cells(or )T4 cells (or) CD4 cells=Involved in Cell Mediatted Immunity(CMI),also send signals to immune cells and destroy infectious particles.
*Cytotoxic T cells(CTLs)of Thymus=Helps in host defence against viral infection.
*B Cells (Bone marrow)=Involved in Humoral immunity (or) Antibody mediated immunity.

5.CHROMOSOME  NUMBERS OF ANIMALS AND INSECTS:
*Man(Homo sapiens)=46
*Fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster)=8
*Gorilla(Gorilla gorilla) =48
*Horse=64
*Donkey=62
*Mule=63
*Mosquito (Aedes)=6
*Bull/Cow =60
*Starfish=36
*Earthworm=36
*Pigeon (Columba livia)=80
*House fly(Musca domestica)=12
*Hydra(Hydra vulgaris)=32
*Ascaris (Round worm)=2
*Lion=38
*Tiger=38
*Domestic Cat=38
*Mouse=40___
*Platypus=52
*Dolphin=44
*Monkey=54
*Dog=78
*Chicken=78
*Cray fish =200.

By
Mr.R.Soundarapandian, MSc, MEd, MPhil, 
PG Asst Zoology 
Sir MCTM Boys Higher Secondary School, 
Purasawalkam Chennai-84.


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