Hello Students: DAY- 7 Evening Coffee with NEET





HELLO STUDENTS: DAY- 7 Evening

1.TECHNOLOGIES INVOLVED IN BIOREMEDIATION 
(Bioremediation is the use of microorganisms or plants to clean up environmental pollution):

*PHYTOREMEDIATION= Use of plants to bring about remediation of environmental pollutants.

*MYCOREMEDIATION= Use of fungi to bring about remediation of environmental pollutants.

*BIOVENTING= It is the process that increases oxygen or air flow to accelerate the degradation of environmental pollutants.

*BIOLEACHING= It is the use of microorganisms in solution to recover metal pollutants from contaminated sites.

*BIOAUGMENTATION= It is the addition of selected microbes to speed up degradation process.

*COMPOSTING= It is the process by which the solid waste is composted by the use of microbes into manure which act as a nutrient for plant growth.

*RHIZOFILTRATION= It is the uptake of metals or degradation of organic compounds by rhizosphere microorganisms.

*RHIZOSTIMULATION= It is the stimulation of plant growth by the rhizosphere by providing better growth condition or reduction in toxic materials.

2.TYPES OF CARBON:
*GREEN CARBON= Carbon stored in the  biosphere (by the process of photosynthesis).
*GREY CARBON= Carbon stored in fossil fuel (coal,oil and biogas deposits in the lithosphere).
*BLUE CARBON= Carbon stored in the atmosphere and oceans.
*BROWN CARBON= Carbon stored in industrialized forests ( wood used in making commercial articles)
*BLACK CARBON= Carbon emitted from gas , diesel engine and coal fired power plants.

3.POST FERTILIZATION STRUCTURE AND EVENTS 
( Transformation after fertilization):
*Sepals,Petals,Stamens,Style and Stigma= Usually  wither and fall off
*Ovary= Fruit
*Ovule= Seed
*Egg= Zygote
*Funicle= Stalk of the seed
*Micropyle of ovule = Micropyle of the seed facilitates Oxygen  and water uptake.
*Nucellus= Perisperm
*Outer integument of ovule= Testa (outer seed coat)
*Inner integument= Tegmen(inner seed coat)
*Synergid cells = will degenerate
*Secondary nucleus= Endosperm
*Antipodal cells= will degenerate.

4.TYPES OF OVULES IN PLANTS:
*ORTHOTROPOUS= Piperaceae,Polygonaceae(in this micropyle is at distal end, micropyle, funicle and chalaza are in one straight vertical line )
*ANATROPOUS= common Dicot and Monocot(completely inverted, micropyle and funiculus are found near close)
*HEMIANATROPOUS= Primulaceae(in this body of the ovule is placed  transversely at the right angles to the funicle )
*CAMPYLOTROPOUS= Legiminosae(ovule at the micropylar end is curved and  and bean shaped, embryo sac is slightly curved)
*AMPHITROPOUS=Alismataceae(The distance between hilum and chalaza is less,horse shoe shaped nucellus)
*CIRCINOTROPOUS=Cactaceae(Funiculus is very long and surrounds the ovule).

5.TYPE OF ENTRY OF POLLEN TUBE INTO THE OVULE:
*POROGAMY= When the pollen tube enters through the micropyle.
*CHALAZOGAMY= When the pollen tube enters through the Chalaza.
*MESOGAMY= When the pollen tube enters through the integument.

6.IMPORTANT INTERNATIONAL INITIATIVE ON ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES:
*VIENNA CONVENTION= 1985, for protection of Ozone layer.
*MONTREAL PROTOCOL= In1987 but effective in 1989,Held  at Montreal (Canada) to protect Ozone layer and controlling emission of Ozone depleting substances(ODS).
*EARTH SUMMIT= In 1992,at Rio de Janeiro (Brazil),Aim is conservation of biodiversity.
*KYOTO PROTOCOL= In 1997,At Kyoto,Japan(COP-3) Conference of parties,Aim is to reduce the emission of Green House Gases.
*ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION ACT= In 1986,to protect and improve environmental quality.
*WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT= Held in 2002,at Jahannesburg, South Africa,Aim is to protect Biodiversity.
*DOHA CONVENTION= Held in 2012,Doha,Qatar.Aim is climate change protection.
*PARIS AGREEMENT (COP-21)= held in 2015,Paris.Aim is Climate change protection.
*KIGALI AMENDMENT= Held in 2016 at Kigali,Rwanda(African country).Aim is to reduce ozone layer depletion.

7.ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS:
*The Insecticide Act ,1968
*The Water( Prevention and control of Pollution Act,1974
*The Air Prevention Act,1981(amended in Chennai1987)
*The Environment Protection Act ,1986
*National Forest Policy,1988.Recommended 33% forest cover for planes and 67% for the hills.


By
Mr.R.Soundarapandian, MSc, MEd, MPhil, 
PG Asst Zoology 
SIR MCTM Boys Higher Secondary School, 
Purasawalkam Chennai-84.

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