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*SALIVARY AMYLASE(or) PTYALIN= Act on cooked starch  and converts
 into Maltose.
*PEPSIN= Act on proteins and converts into polypeptides and peptones.
*TRYPSIN=Act on proteins converts into polypeptides and peptones.
*CHYMOTRYPSIN= Act on proteins and converts into large peptides.
*RENNIN(in the presence of Calcium ions)= Act on Caesinogen(Soluble milk protein)and converts into Caesin(curds)
*MALTASE= Act on maltose and converts into glucose and glucose.
*SUCRASE=Act on Sucrose and converts into glucose and fructose.
*LACTASE=Act on lactose and converts into glucose and galactose.
*PEPTIDASE= Act on Di ,Tripeptides and converts into aminoacids.
*NUCLEOTIDASE= Acts on nucleotides and converts into Nucleoside and Phosphoric acid.
*NUCLEOSIDASE= Act on nucleosides and converts into nitogenous base and sugar.
*PANCREATIC LIPASE (or) STEAPSIN = Act on Triglycerides (emulsified fat) and converts into free fatty acids and monoglycerides.
*LIPASES= Act on Diglycerides and Monoglycerides and converts into Fatty acids and Glycerol.
*HCl= Converts inactive Pepsinogen into active Pepsin.
*ENTEROKINASE= Converts inactive Trypsinogen into active Trypsin.
*TRYPSIN= Converts inactive Chymotrysinogen into active Chymotrypsin.


*Thyrotropin releasing hormone(TRH)= Stimulates the secretion of TSH.

*Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)= Stimulates the secretion of FSH.

*Corticotropin releasing hormone. (CRH)=Stimulates the secretion of ACTH.

*Growth hormone releasing hormone. (GHRH)= Stimulates the secretion of GH.

*Prolactin releasing hormone. (PRH)=Stimulates the secretion of Prolactin.

*Leteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH)= Stimulates the secretion of LH.

*Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) releasing hormone= Stimulates the secretion of MSH.

*Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone(GHIH)= Inhibits the secretion of GH.

*Prolactin inhibiting hormone(PIH)= Inhibits the secretion of Prolactin.

*MSH inhibiting hormone= Inhibits the secretion of MSH.

*Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)= Induces pigmentation in skin.

*Growth hormone (GH)/ Somatotropic hormone (STH) / Somatotropin= Promotes growth of all the tissues, Stimulates Chondrogenesis and Osteogenesis.

*Thyroid Stimulating hormone (TSH) /Thyrotropin=Stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete Tri-iodothyronine(T3) and Thyroxine (T4).

*Adreno cortico tropic hormone (ACTH)= Stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids and mineralocortids, release fatty acids from adipose tissue, ,stimulates melanin synthesis in melanocytes and stimulates insulin secretion.

*Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)= Regulates the functions of gonads like testes and ovaries.Helps in sperms production (Spermatogenesis) and in development of Graffian follicles.

*Luteinizing hormone (LH)/ Interstitial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH)= In male it produces testosterone and female induces ovulation.Along with FSH  helps in maturation of ovarian follicles.

*Luteotropic hormone(LTH)/Luteotropin /Lactogenic hormone /Prolactin/Mammotropin= Stimulates milk secretion after the child birth in females.

*Vasopressin (or) Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)= Promotes reabsorption of water and electrolytes from distal convoluted tubules of nephron.Also causes constriction of blood vessels and increases blood pressure.

* Oxytocin= Stimulates vigorous contractions of the smooth muscles of Uterus during child birth and ejection of  milk from the mammary glands.

1)play a central role in the regulation of circadian rhythm of our body 
2)maintains the normal  sleep wake cycle 
3)regulates the timing of sexual maturation of gonads 
4)influences metabolism 
5) influences pigmentation 
6) influences menstrual cycle and 
7) influences defence mechanism of our body.

*Thyroxin (or) Tetra- iodothyronine (T4) =1)regulates BMR and body heat production 2) Stimulates protein synthesis and growth 3) essential for the development of skeletal and nervous system 4) maintain blood pressure 5)reduces serum cholesterol levels 5) necessary for gonadial functions.

*Thyrocalcitonin (TCT)=1) Regulates the blood Calcium and Phosphate levels 2) reduces the blood Calcium level.

*Parathormone (or) Parathyroid hormone(PTH)= 
1)Parathormone is a Hypercalemic hormone.
2)Increases the blood Calcium level by stimulating osteoclasts to dissolve the bone matrix.
3)It enhances the reabsorption of Calcium and excretion of phosphates 
4) Promotes activation of Vitamin D to increase Calcium absorption by Intestinal mucosal cells.

*Thymulin,Thymosin,Thymopoietin and Thymic humoral factor(THF)= Involved major role  in cell mediated immunity(CMI).

*Cortisol( a Glucocorticoid)= 
1) Involved in maintaining cardio vascular and kidney functions.
2)It produces anti-inflammatory reactions and suppresses the immune response.
3)It stimulates the RBC production.

*Aldosterone( a Mineralocortid)= 
1)It stimulates the reabsorption of Sodium and water and eliminates Potassium and Phosphate ions through excretion 
2) Helps in maintaining electrolytes,osmotic pressure and blood pressure.
3)Adrenal androgen plays a role in hair growth in the axial region,pubis and facec during puberty.

*Adrenalin(or) Epinephrine("3F hormone"(Fight , Flight and Fright hormone )=
1) Increases liver glycogen  breakdown into glucose 
2)Increases  the release of fatty acids from fat cells.
3) During emergency it increases heart beat rate and blood pressure.
4) Increases blood  flow  to the skeletal muscles.
5) Increase the metabolic rate of skeletal muscles,cardiac muscles and nervous tissue.

1)act as hypoglycemic hormone 
2)lower the blood glucose levels by increasing the uptake of glucose into body cells like muscles and fat cells.
3)It Increases conversation of glucose into glycogen and deposition of it in liver and muscles.

*Humulin N = Human insulin is produced by recombinant DNA technology and used to treats diabetes mellitus.

1) It is a hyperglycemic hormone that acts on the  liver and promotes the breakdown of glycogen to glucose (Glycogenolysis) and increases the blood sugar levels.
2) Synthesis of glucose from lactic acid and from non - carbohydrate molecules (Gluconeogenesis).

*Testosterone(C 19 Steroids)=
1)It promotes the development of the secondary sexual characters of males , including physical development,hair distribution, masculine voice and make behaviour at puberty.
2)It enhances the total bone matrix and 
3) Stimulating role in the process of spermatogenesis.

*Oestrogen( C-18 Steroid hormone )=
1) Controls the development of accessory sex organ and secondary sexual characters.
2)Regulates menstrual cycle 
3)Promotes growth of ovarian follicles 
4)It causes the growth of the breasts and formation of melanin pigments.

*Progesterone (C-21 Steroid hormone)=
1) Responsible for the premenstrual growth in the non- pregnant women's uterus.
2)Prepares the Uterus for implantation of the fertilised ovum.
3)Helps in the formation of placenta and  maintains pregnancy.
4) During pregnancy it inhibits contraction of uterus.
5)It also suppresses ovulation and menstruation during pregnancy.

*Relaxin= Helps in relaxing the muscles and ligaments of pelvic organs during child birth (Parturition).

*Renin= It is secreted by Juxta Glomerular Apparatus cells (JGA),which Increases blood pressure when Angiotensin is formed in blood.

*Erythropoietin= It is secreted by Juxta Glomerular Apparatus cells of the kidney and stimulates  Erythropoiesis(Formation of RBC)in bone marrow.

1)It is secreted by proximal convoluted tubules of nephron.
2)It is an active form of vitamin D3 which promotes Calcium and phosphorus absorption from intestine and accelerates bone formation.

*Gastrin= Secreted by the specialized endocrine cells of gastro- Intestinal tract  and act on the gastric glands  and stimulates the secretion of HCl and Pepsinogen.

*Cholecystokinin (CCK)= 
1)It is secreted by duodenum in response to the presence of fat and acid in the diet.
2)It acts on the gall bladder to release bile into duodenum and stimulates the secretion of pancreatic enzymes and it's discharge.

*Secretin= Acts on acini cells of Pancreas to secrete bicarbonate ions and water to neutralize the acidity.

*Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) = Inhibits gastric secretion and motility.

Mr.R.Soundarapandian, MSc, MEd, MPhil, 
PG Asst Zoology 
SIR MCTM Boys Higher Secondary School, 
Purasawalkam Chennai-84.

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