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                              MOLECULAR BASIS OF INHERITANCE


·         A site (Aminoacyl site): A functional site in larger subunit of ribosome where tRNA carrying                 amino acid gets attached.

·         Anticodon: Three base sequences present on tRNA that are complementary to the triplet code of mRNA.

·         Bacteriophages: Viruses that infect the bacteria.

·         Central Dogma: The unidirectional flow of information form DNA—>RNA—> Protein

·         Codon: A group of three nucleotide bases on mRNA that specify a particular amino acid in protein synthesis.

·         DNA Ligase: Enzyme that joins okazaki fragments to form lagging strand.

·         DNA Polymerase: Enzyme that link free DNA nucleotides to form the complementary strand. It works in 5’-3’ direction.

·         Exons: Regions of a eukaryotic gene that contain the information necessary to form a protein.

·         Frameshift Mutation: Mutation caused due to insertion or deletion of a single base that shifts the entire reading frame of DNA.

·         F-Factor: Fertility factor or sex factor present in the plasmid of some bacteria. F+ is male bacterium and F- is female bacterium.

·         Genetic Code: The genetic information in the form of sequences of base triplets in DNA which controls the sequence of amino acids in a protein.

·         Helicases: Enzyme that help in unwinding the two strand of DNA.

·         Hfr Strain (High frequency recombination strain): A male bacterium having fertility factor (F-factor) integrated to its chromosome.

·         Inducer: The chemical that induces or turns the switch on of an operon to produce the enzyme.

·         Inducible Enzymes: Enzymes whose production is induced or stimulated by a compound called inducer.

·         Introns: Regions of a eukaryotic gene that do not have information for a protein.

·         Operon: A part of genetic material which acts as a single regulated unit having structural gene/genes and regulatory genes.

·         P-site (Peptidyl Site): A functional site in larger subunit of ribosome where tRNA from A site is pulled by the process of translocation.

·         Primer: Short segments of RNA formed on DNA template before the replication begins.

·         Proto-oncogenes: Potential oncogenes present in the normal cells before they are triggered.

·         RNA Polymerase : Enzyme that catalyses the formation of RNA from one strand of DNA.

·         Repressor enzymes: Enzymes whose production is repressed or stopped by the end product of their metabolism.

·         Reverse Transcription: Transcription of double stranded DNA from single stranded RNA with the help of enzyme reverse transcriptase.

·         Split Genes: Eukaryotic genes consisting of coding (exons) and non-coding (introns) segments in DNA.

·         Topoisomerases: Enzymes that break and reseal one strand of DNA.

·         Transcription: The process of synthesis of RNA from one of the strands of DNA.

·         Transformation: The phenomenon by which DNA isolated from one type of cells when introduced into another type is able to bestow (give) some of the properties of the former to the latter.

·         Translation: To change the coded message of mRNA into the sequence of amino acids.

·         Translocation: The process in which a tRNA molecule  moves from A site to P site due to movement of ribosome on mRNA during protein synthesis.

·         Wobble Position: Position of third base in a codon, which even after mutation permits binding of anticodon of the corresponding tRNA.


Mr. A. KINGSLIN M.Sc, BEd, Phd,(doing)
Post Graduate Teacher in Botany
St. Mary Goretty Hr. Sec School, Manalikarai 
Kanyakumari district

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