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RESPIRATION

             IMPORTANT TERMS

·         Aerobic Respiration: Oxidation of complex organic molecules in presence of oxygen with CO2, water and energy.

·         Anaerobic Respiration: Oxidation of complex organic molecules in absence of oxygen to produce ethanol ⁄lactic acid, CO2 and small amount of energy.

·         Amphibolic: A metabolic pathway used in both catabolism and anabolism.

·         ATP Synthetase: An enzyme complex that catalyses formation of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.

·         CO2 Compensation Point: Atmospheric concentration of CO2 at which photosynthesis just compensates for respiration.

·         Cytochromes: Heme proteins serving as electron carriers in respiration, photosynthesis and other oxidation reduction reactions.

·         Electron Carriers: Proteins such as flavoproteins or cytochromes that can reversibly gain or lose electron.

·         Fermentation: The oxidation of carbohydrates into ethanol and CO2 by certain microorganisms under anaerobic condition.

·         Glycolysis: The catabolic pathway by which a molecule of glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate.

·         Oxidative Phosphorylation: Synthesis of ATP with the help of energy released by the oxidation of reduced coenzymes during respiration.

·         Respiratory Quotient: The ratio of volume of CO2 released to the volume of O2 consumed during respiration.

·         Substrate level Phosphorylation: Phosphorylation of ATP or some other nucleotide diphosphate directly forms a metabolite.

 

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

·         Dutrochet: Coined the term ‘respiration’.

·         Cruick Shank (1897): Coined the term ‘fermentation’.

·         Kostytchev (1902): Coined the term ‘anaerobic respiration’.

·         Homofermentive Fermentation: When only one main product is formed.

·         Heterofermentive Fermentation: When two or more than two types of products are formed.

·         Lactic acid and Heart: Heart muscles have enzyme to convert lactic acid into pyruvate. During heavy exercise, lactic acid is formed in large quantities by skeletal muscles. The same is poured into blood. A part of it is used by heart muscles in order to obtain extra energy for rapid activity.

·         ETC Poisons: (i) Cynide prevents transfer of electrons from cytochrome a3 to oxygen (ii) Antimycin prevents electron transport between cytochrome b and cytochrome c1 (iii) 2:4 Dinitrophenol allows electron transport but prevents ATP synthesis.

·         Proton and ATP synthesis: According to modern physiologists, the number of protons transported to cytosolic side of inner mitochondrial membrane is 10 per electron pair  from NADH (4+2+4) and 6 per electron pair from FADH2 (2
+4). Three protons are used up for synthesis of one ATP. However, one proton is required for transport of each NADH is 2.5 and for each FADH2 as 1.5. The total number of ATP molecules produced per glucose molecule is then 30 or 32 instead of 36 or 38.

·         Smallest Motor: It is a biological motor consisting of parts of F0 submit of elementary particle and a stalk that passes into F1 subunit.

·         Pasteur Effect: It is the reduction in consumption of respiratory substrate, when the mode of respiration is changed from anaerobic to aerobic.

·         Respirometer: Instrument used for measuring respiratory quotient as well as rate of respiration.  

Mr. A. KINGSLIN M.Sc, BEd, Phd,(doing)
Post Graduate Teacher in Botany
St. Mary Goretty Hr. Sec School, Manalikarai 
Kanyakumari district





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