Hello Students: DAY- 48 Morning Coffee with NEET

 

 



BIOTECHNOLOGY

IMPORTANT TERMS:

·         Amplification of Gene: The process of making many copies of a gene.

·         Bioreactors: Large vessels employed to obtain biological products in large quantities in commercial scale.

·         Biotechnology: The use of living organisms or a substance obtained from them for human welfare.

·         Competent Host: The cell which is capable of taking up alien DNA.

·         Cosmid: DNA vector constructed by combining certain features of plasmid and ‘Cos’ sites of phage lambda.

·         Genetic Engineering: The techniques which alter the chemistry of genetic material (DNA and RNA) to introduce these into host organisms and thus change the phenotype of the host organism.

·         Palindromic Nucleotide Sequences: Sequence of base pairs in DNA that reads same forward and backwards.

·         Electrophoresis: A technique of separation of charged molecules under the influence of an electric field.

·         Elution: The process of separation and extraction of DNA fragments from agarose gel during isolation of DNA.

·         Phagemid: A composite structure made of bacteriophage and plasmid.

·         Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): A technique of making multiple copies of a gene or DNA.

·         Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes which can cut DNA molecule to specific locations.

·         Restriction Modification System: A defence system in bacteria consisting of restriction endonucleases and modification system.

·         Selectable Marker: Gene that helps in identifying and eliminating non-transformants by selectively permitting the growth of the transformants.

·         Transformant: The bacterium that has modified due to introduction of a piece of foreign DNA.

·         Vector DNA: DNA used as carrier for transferring a fragment of foreign DNA into a host cell.

·         Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs): Plant, bacteria, fungi and animals whose genes have been altered by manipulation.

·         Gene Therapy: Is the treatment of hereditary disorders by replacing a faulty gene by a normal healthy functional gene.

·         Transgenic Animals: Animals that have their DNA manipulated to possess and express an extra (foreign) gene.

 

                            ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

·         Sir Edward Sharpy- Shafer (1916) discovered insulin while studying the islets of Langerhans in pancreas.

·         Eli Lily has started selling Himulin (the commercially produced human insulin) since July 5, 1983.

·         Eli Lily and Ranbaxy launched diabetic drugs like Humapen, Humalog and Protein Kinasec.

·         Paul Berg: For the first time transferred gene of SV 40 virus into E.coli. He is called ‘Father of Genetic Engineering’.

·         Daniel Nathans, Hamilton Smith and Werner Aber were awarded Noble Prize in 1978 for restriction endonuclease technology and its role in genetic engineering.

·         Brazzein is a protein obtained from a West African plant, Pentadiplandra brazzeana, which is approximately 2000 times as sweet as sugar. It is used as low calorie sweetener.

·         DNA is bigger than enzyme.

·         Eukaryotic cells have restriction endonuclease occasionally.

Mr. A. KINGSLIN M.Sc, BEd, Phd,(doing)
Post Graduate Teacher in Botany
St. Mary Goretty Hr. Sec School, Manalikarai 
Kanyakumari district





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