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HUMAN HEALTH AND DISEASES

IMPORTANT TERMS:

·        Addictive Drug: A drug that modifies the biological, psychological or social behaviour of a person by stimulating, depressing or disturbing the functions of the body and the mind.

·         Adolescence: The period between childhood and adulthood.

·         Allergen: A substance ( generally a weak antigen) that cause allergic reaction.

·         Allergy: An exaggerated response of the immune system to certain antigens present in the environment.

·         Cannabinoids: The drugs which are obtained from hemp plant (Cannabis sativa).

·         Carcinogen: An agent that can cause cancer.

·         Colostrum: First milk secreted by mother during the initial days of lactation.

·         Contamination: Refers to the presence of disease causing agents in non-living materials.

·         Digenetic: A parasite which completes its life cycle on in two hosts.

·         Disease: Malfunctioning of the body or a part of it due to one reason or the other.

·         Drug Addict: A person who is habituated to a drug.

·    Hallucinogens (Psychedelic drugs): Drugs that change one’s perception thoughts and feelings without any true sensory stimulus.

·         Hallucinosis: A syndrome characterized by more or less persistent hallucinations.

·         Health: A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not only absence of disease.

·         Hypnotics: Drugs that induce sleep.

·         Immunity: Ability of the host to fight the disease causing organisms.

·         Immunization: Process of making a person immune to a disease.

·         Infestation: Refers to the lodgments, development and reproduction of a parasite on the surface of the body or in the clothing.

·         Interferon (IFN): An antiviral protein produced by the viral infected cells.

·         Opioids: Drugs which are derived from opium and their synthetic relatives.

·         Pathogenecity: Effect of a disease causing organisms on the host.

·         Sedatives: Drugs that produce a feeling of calmness, relaxation leading to drowsiness or sleep.

·         Stimulants: Drugs which stimulate the nervous system, make a person more wakeful, alert and active and cause excitement.

·         Symptoms: External manifestations/signs of the disease.

·         Tranquillizers: Drugs that reduce tension and anxiety without inducing sleep.


ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

·         Antipyretic: Medicines which bring down fever .eg. Paracetamol.

·         Analgesic: Medicines which are used for relief of pain. Eg. Aspirin, Morphine.

·         Antibiotic: A substance which inhibits or kills microorganisms like bacteria. Eg.Tetracycline.

·         Antihistaminic: Medicines used to reduce congestion in the nose, throat and chest. Eg. Actifed, Avil.

·         Antiseptic: An agent that prevents and destroys the growth of microorganisms. Eg. Savlon, Dettol.

·         Antitote: Substances used to counteract the effects of poisons. Eg. Alkalies for acid poisoning.

·         Acupuncture: A discipline of treatment using microfine needles.

·         Antabuse: An internationally marketed drug used for the treatment of alcoholism. Eg. Disulfiram.

·         Angioplasty: Opening of blocked coronary vessel.

·         Typhus fever: It is an acute infectious disease caused by Rickettsia prowazeki. It is transmitted by fleas and lice.

·         Gynaecomastia: Hypertrophy of male breast.

·         Fahrenholz’s Rule: The parasites and their hosts have evolved parallel.

·         Southern Blotting Technique was developed by E.M Southern, which detects DNA fragments.

·       Northern Blotting Technique: Named for its similarity to southern blotting technique, detects mRNAs.

·         Western Blotting Technique: Named for its similarity to southern blotting technique, detects specific protein in a complex mixture of proteins.

·    Cytokines: These are soluble, non-antibody proteins released by cells of the immune system. Eg.interleukin-1 produced by macrophages, perforin secreted by killer T-cells.

·         Eubiotics: (Gk. Eu= good, biotikos= relating to life).

·         Ergotism: Poisoning by a toxic substance contained in the fruiting body of the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea.

·         SAFA Test (Solid Antigen Fluorescent Antibody Test): It is a modification of ELISA test in which fluorescent labeled antigens are used to visualize the interactions.

·         Emil Adolf Von Behring (1891): Discovered the technique of passive immunization by infecting diphtheria pathogen into sheep preparing serum from its blood after sometime. He got the 1901 Nobel Prize for serum therapy for giving acquired passive immunity against diphtheria.

·         S.A. Waksman discovered streptomycin, first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis. For this work, he got Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1952.

Jonas Salk (1953): Prepared first polio vaccine by killing polio virus with formaldehyde. The Killed virus is called ‘Salk Vaccine’ and injected to develop immunity

Mr. A. KINGSLIN M.Sc, BEd, Phd,(doing)
Post Graduate Teacher in Botany
St. Mary Goretty Hr. Sec School, Manalikarai 
Kanyakumari district





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