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·        ·         Activated sludge: The sediment of flocs deposited in secondary treatment in Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs).

·         Anaerobic Sludge Digester: Tank where activated sludge is decomposed by anaerobic bacteria to produce biogas and spent sludge.

·         Biocontrol: Natural method of pest and pathogen control involving the use of viruses, bacteria, fungi and other insects.

·         Biofertilizers: The organisms that enrich the nutrient quality of the soil.

·         Bioreactor (Fermenter): A very large stainless steel vessel used to grow microbes for an industrial process.

·         Clot buster: Substance for removing clots from blood vessels.

·         Flocs: The masses of bacteria associated with fungal filaments to form mesh like structures in secondary treatment tank of STPs.

·         Gobar gas: Biogas produced from cattle dung by the activity of methanogens.

·          LAB (Lactic Acid Bacteria): Bacteria used in the preparation of dairy products.

·         Mash: Nutrient medium which has been diluted with warm water.

·         Methanogens: Anaerobic bacteria that grow on cellulosic materials and produce methane along with CO2 and H2.

·         Organic farming: Farming practice which does not use chemical fertilizers and pesticides, but uses biopesticides and biofertilizers.

·         Primary sludge: Sediment deposited in primary treatment of sewage treatment plants.

·         Scaling up: Development of a process from laboratory scale to manufacturing unit.

·         Starter: Inoculum used to carry out fermentation of a substrate.

·         Yash: Refers to fermented substrate.

·         Yort: A medium consisting of molasses and fruit juicies.


·         Chemical Pesticides:

(i) Organochlorines are chlorinated hydrocarbons eg, DDT (Dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane), BHC (Benzene hexachloride), Lindane, Endosulphan, Eldrin, Dieldrin, Endrin etc.

(ii) Organophosphates are organic esters of phosphonic acids. They are neurotoxic. Eg. Malathion (an ingredient of flit),parathion,trithion, ethion, fenitrothion etc.

(iii) Carbamates are organic esters of carbonic acid. They are structurally similar to acetylcholine hence bind with the enzyme acetocholine esterase. Eg.carbaryl, carbofuran, aldicarb, propocar.

(iv) Pyrethroids are synthetic derivatives of the chemical, pyrenthrin (obtained from Chrysanthemum cinerarifolium). They are quick acting and broad spectrum pesticides.

(v) Triazines are derivatives of urea having a ring structure with a general formula of C3H3N3 .eg simazine, atrazine etc.

(vi) Auxin Derivatives: eg.2,4-D(2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) 2,4,5-T (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy acetic acid), MCPA (2 methyl-4-chlorophenoxy acetic acid), TCA (tri chloroacetic acid) etc.are used as selective herbicides or weedicides.

Mr. A. KINGSLIN M.Sc, BEd, Phd,(doing)
Post Graduate Teacher in Botany
St. Mary Goretty Hr. Sec School, Manalikarai 
Kanyakumari district

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