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STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCEMENT OF FOOD PRODUCTION

IMPORTANT TERMS:

       ·         Clone: A group of individuals/cells derived from a single parent individual/cell through asexual reproduction.

·         Disease: An abnormal development in a plant /animal caused by either an abiotic or a biotic factor of the environment.

·         Domestication: The process of bringing a species under human management.

·         Emasculation: Removal of anthers of flowers of the female parent before opening.

·         Explant: The plant part that is excised from its original location and used for initiating a culture.

·         Germplasm: The sum total of all the alleles of the genes present in a species.

·         Haploidy: A condition of an individual/cell having the chromosome number fond in the gametes of the species.

·         Hardening: The process of making the plantlets capable of tolerating the relatively harsher environments outside the culture vessels.

·         Heterosis (Hybrid vigour): The appearance of superior characters in F1 hybrids, from either of the parents.

·         Hybridization: Mating of two (or more) individuals or lines differing in genotype is called hybridization.

·         Inbreeding Depression: The loss of vigour associated with inbreeding.

·         Introduction: The process of taking a variety/line/population of a plant species from one area into a new area, where it was not grown before.

·         Mutagens: The substances/factors which have the ability to induce mutations.

·         Mutation: Sudden and heritable change in a character of an organism.

·         Polyploidy: A condition of an individual/cell having more than two copies of a genome/genomes.

·         Quarantine: The process of careful examination of a introduced materials for the presence of weeds, insects and disease causing organisms.

·         Regeneration: The development of an organized structure , like root, shoot or somatic embryo from  cultured cells.

·         Resistant: A host line having the ability to prevent a pathogen from producing disease.

·         Somatic Hybrid: A hybrid produced by fusion of somatic cells of two varieties or species.

·         Sterilization: The process of making the explant, vessels, media or instrument free from microbes by treating with anti-microbial chemicals/steam/dry heat.

·         Susceptible: A host line not having the ability to prevent pathogen from producing disease.

·         Totipotency: The ability of plant cells to regenerate into complete plant.

·         Trait (Character): Any morphological, anatomical , biochemical or behavioural feature of an organism.

·         Transgene: A gene that is transferred into an organism by genetic engineering.

·         Transgenic Organism: (Genetically modified organism) An organism that contains and expresses a transgene.

·         Variation: Difference among individuals of a population or species for a given character constitutes variation for that trait.

·         Variety: A group of plants that have the same genotype or similar genotype.

      ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

·                     Norman E Borlaug: Father of Green Revolution.

·                     M.S. Swaminathan: Father of Green Revolution in India.

·                     Panchanan Maheshwari: Father of Embryology in India.

·                     World Food Day: 16th October.

·                     Important Plant Breeding Centres in India.

·                     (i) Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi.

(ii) Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla.

(iii) Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack.

(iv) Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore.

(v) Forest Research Institute, Dehradun.

(vi) National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow.

(vii) G.B. Plant Agricultural University, Pant Nagar.

(viii) Ch. C.S.  Agricultural University, Hissar.

(ix) Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana.

(x) Narendra Dev University,  Kumarganj.

·         Gene Knockout: Replacement of a normal gene by its specifically mutated copy.

·         Androgenesis: Production of haploid plants from young pollen grain (ie. male gametophyte).

·         Gynogenesis: Development of plants from unfertilized cells of female gametophyte in ovule/ovary.

·         Shikonin: A red dye, used in the manufacture of cosmetics, is obtained through tissue culture technique.

·         Triticale: A man made new cereal crop (allopolyploid) developed by crossing wheat ( Triticum turgidum) and rye (Secale cereale) and chromosome doubling of the resulting F1 hybrid.

·         Herbal Pesticide: Developed from garlic acid chillies in Pune (Maharashtra).

·         Scientists at CDRI, Lucknow, developed a biocide from Bacillus sphaericus, which is highly effective to control the mosquito menace.

Mr. A. KINGSLIN M.Sc, BEd, Phd,(doing)
Post Graduate Teacher in Botany
St. Mary Goretty Hr. Sec School, Manalikarai 
Kanyakumari district





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