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BREATHING AND EXCHANGE OF GASES

IMPORTANT TERMS:

  v Aerobic Respiration: Respiration in the presence of air or free O2.

v Alveoli: It is the site of respiration inside the lungs.

v Anaerobic Respiration: Respiration in the absence of air or free O2.

v Asthma: Narrowing of bronchi due to spasm in bronchial muscles.

v Bohr’s Effect: Effect of CO2 concentration on the dissociation of oxyhaemoglobin.

v Bronchioles: Largest branches of bronchus which have no cartilaginous support.

v Bronchitis: It is an inflammation of the bronchi.

v Chloride Shift: It is the exchange of bicarbonate ions of erythrocytes and chloride ions of plasma.

v Diphtheria: It is caused by Cornybacterium diphtheria resulting in enlarged mucous membranes of the oropharynx and larynx.

v Diffusion: It is the flow of materials from the region of higher partial pressure to the region of lower partial pressure.

v Emphysema: Decrease in respiratory surface area due to dissolution of walls of alveoli. It is mainly caused by cigarette smoking.

v Epiglottis: A bilobed cartilage which closes the glottis of larynx during the swallowing.

v Expiration: The process of expelling foul air out of the body.

v External Respiration: The exchange of respiratory gases at the lung alveoli.

v Inspiration: The process by which fresh air is taken inside the lung alveoli.

v Internal Respiration: The exchange of respiratory gases at the cellular level between O2 of blood and CO2 of body cells.

v Laryngitis: It is an inflammation of the larynx.

v Oxygen Dissociation Curve: A graph which shows the per cent saturation of haemoglobin with oxygen.

v Pleura: A two-layered sac surrounding the lung.

v Pneumonia: In pneumonia alveoli become acutely inflamed, and fluid with white blood corpuscles accumulate in the lung tissues.

v Rhinitis: Chronic or acute inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose.

v Tracheae: The respiratory air tubes found in the insects.

v Cyanosis: A dark bluish colour of skin  and mucous membrane due to deficiency of oxygen in blood.

v Eupnea: True breathing or normal breathing.

v Hyperpnea/Trachypnoea: Breathing rate high above normal.

v Hypopnea/ Bradypnoea: Breathing rate low below normal.

v Apnea: No breathing or almost nil.

v Anoxia: Absence of O2 in inspired gases, arterial blood or tissue is called anoxia.

v Deep Breathing or Quiet Breathing is also called ‘abdominal breathing’ as it is mainly due to the movements of diaphragm, and chest movements are inconspicuous.

v Surfactant: A surface active agent is a mixture of several phospholipids, proteins and ions, secreted by alveoli which prevents their collapsing.

v Asphyxia: It is a condition caused by increase in CO2 concentration in tissue.

v Hypoxia: A clinical term for lack of oxygen supply to the tissues.

                                                            ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

v  CRD: Chronic respiratory disease.

v  COPD: Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, eg; asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, etc.

v  Snoring: A rough rattling inspiratory noise produced by vibration of uvula or sometimes of vocal cords during sleep. It is due to partial blockage of upper respiratory tract by the tongue, leading to turbulence in the air flow. Snoring is also called Sleep Apnoe Syndrome (SAS).

v  Yawning: A prolonged inspiration through widely opened mouth producing an exaggerated depression of the lower jaw. May be stimulated by drowsiness or fatigue. Low oxygen tension in the blood may cause yawning.

v  Sneezing: Spasmodic contraction of muscles of expiration forcefully expels air through the nose and mouth. An irritation may stimulate the nasal mucosa to cause sneezing.

v  Hiccough: Spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm followed by a spasmodic closure of the glottis produces a sharp inspiratory sound. Usually, an irritation of the sensory nerve endings of digestive tract causes hiccough.

v  Coughing: Preceded by a long-drawn and deep inspiration that is followed by a complete closure of glottis resulting a forcible expiration suddenly pushes glottis open and sends a blast of air through the upper respiratory passages. The stimulus for this reflex act could be a foreign body lodged in the larynx, trachea or epiglottis.

v  Respiratory Pigments: (i) Haemoglobin- Iron containing pigment, occurs in the plasma of some annelids (eg. Earthworm, Nereis)  and in RBCs of all vertebrates. (ii) Haemocyanin- Copper containing pigment, occurs in the plasma of crustaceans (eg.prawn, some snails (eg. Pila) and cephalopods (eg. Sepia). (iii) Haemoerythrin- Iron containing pigment, occurs in blood cells of some annelids (eg.polychaeta Magelona). (iv) Chlorocruorin- Iron containing pigment, occurs in plasma of some annelids (eg.polychaete Sabella). (v) Pinnaglobin- Manganese containing pigment, occurs in the plasma of some molluscs (eg. Pinna). (vi) Echinochrome: Iron containing pigment, occurs in the coelomic fluid of some echinoderms (eg. Sea urchin). (vii) Vanadium- Vanadium   containing pigment, occurs in many tunicates (= Urochordates). 

v  Haemoglobin of Muscles: Refers to the muscle protein myoglobin that helps to store oxygen temporarily in the muscles.

v  Diving Mammals: Diving mammals (eg.seals, whales) stay under water for a long time, because they can store oxygen in the blood and muscles. They have comparatively more blood and more oxygen storing protein, the myoglobin in the muscles than other mammals. They also have a larger spleen that releases blood when a dive begins. Their heart rate and oxygen consumption decrease during dive to conserve oxygen.

v  Foetus Haemoglobin: The haemoglobin of a foetus has a higher affinity for oxygen than the mother’s haemoglobin. After birth, foetal haemoglobin is gradually replaced by adult haemoglobin.

v  Human Skin may also be considered a respiratory organ, as it eliminates some carbon dioxide in the sweat.

v  Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS): A communicable disease of respiratory system caused by Human coronavirus (HCV) characterized by cold, dry cough, headache, high fever and hypoxia followed by muscular stiffness and bodily discomfort.

Pasteur Effect: When oxygen is added to an anaerobic cell using glucose at high rate of glucose consumption declines significantly 

Mr. A. KINGSLIN M.Sc, BEd, Phd,(doing)
Post Graduate Teacher in Botany
St. Mary Goretty Hr. Sec School, Manalikarai 
Kanyakumari district





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