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  ·            Acromegaly: Enlargement of hands, feet and jaws and giving man gorilla-like appearance. It is caused due to hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH) after adolescence.

·            Addison’s Disease: A disorder caused due to deficiency of cortisol and aldosterone,resulting in a bronze like pigmentation of skin,low blood sugar and low plasma sodium.

·            Cretinism: A disorder caused in children due to deficiency of thyroid hormones.

·            Cushing’s syndrome: A disorder caused due to excessive secretion of cortisol from adrenal cortex.

·            Diabetes Insipidus: A disease characterized by the elimination of large quantity of hypotonic urine due to decreased absorption of water by the kidney tubules because of failure to secretion of vasopression or ADH.

·            Dwarfism: A condition of a person with less growth caused due to deficiency of growth hormone (GH).

·            Endocrine Glands: The glands which lack ducts and pour their secretions (hormones) directly into the blood.

·            Eunuchoidism: A condition in a male characterized by underdeveloped secondary male sex characters caused due to failure of testosterone secretion.

·            Gigantism: Abnormal elongation of long bones results due to hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH) during early years of development.

·            Grave’s Disease (Exophthalmic Goitre): An auto-immune disorder in which the person produces antibodies that mimic the action of TSH, resulting in thyroid enlargement and bulging of eyeballs.

·            Gynaecomastia: The development of breast tissues in male due to perturbation of estrogen to androgen ratio.

·            Hypothyroidism: Decreased activity of thyroid gland leads to less secretion of thyroxine due to deficiency of iodine resulting into simple goiter.  

·            Hyperthyroidism: Increased activity of thyroid gland leads to increased secretion of thyroxine resulting in exophthalmic goitre or Grave’s disease.

·            Hypogonadism: A disorder arising due to defects ⁄injury to the hypothalamus, pituitary or testes ⁄ovary.

·            Myxoedema: A disorder caused by deficiency of thyroid hormones in adults where the cardinal symptom is oedema (swollen and fluffy face).

·            Precocious Puberty: Sexual maturation of ovary ⁄testes at an early age, i.e., before the age of ten in boys and nine in girls.

·            Tetany (Muscle Spasms): Sustained contractions of the muscles of larynx, face, hands, and feet due to low level of parathormone.


·            Oral Contraceptive Pills: These contain synthetic estrogen and progesterone at a dose high enough to prevent ovulation.

·            Baldness: Male sex hormone promotes baldness, while female hormones inhibit it.

·            Pheromones: The chemicals released by some exocrine glands of same animals into the environment and affect the behaviour of other individual of the same species.

·            Trophic (Tropic) Hormones: The hormones which stimulate other endocrine gland to release its hormone.

·            Thomas Addison: Called the ‘Father of Endocrinology’.

·            Four Ss’’: Standing one for ‘salt’, ‘sugar’, ‘sex’ and ‘stress’ refer to adrenal glands. As adrenal glands control salt and sugar metabolism, development of sex and stress reactions.

·            Triple ‘F’ Gland: Adrenal gland due to its role in flight, fight and fright.

·            World Diabetes Day: 14th November

·            Iodine Deficiency Disorder Day (IDD Day): 21st October.

·            Gastational Diabetes: A temporary phase of diabetes during pregnancy

·            Gravidex Test: Involves testing of HCG of placenta in the urine to test the pregnancy.

Mr. A. KINGSLIN M.Sc, BEd, Phd,(doing)
Post Graduate Teacher in Botany
St. Mary Goretty Hr. Sec School, Manalikarai 
Kanyakumari district

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