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LOCOMOTION AND MOVEMENT

IMPORTANT TERMS:

v  Actin: Contractile protein forming thin filaments in the sarcoplasm of a muscle fibre.

v  Arthritis: Painful inflammation of the joints which may make the later immovable.

v  Axial Skeleton: The skeleton elements which are present along the longitudinal axis of the body.

v  Contractility: The property of muscle cells by which they can shorten forcefully and return to relaxed state.

v  Excitability: The property of nerve cells by which they react by changing the pre-existing potential differences across their membrane and by conducting their potential change like a wave along their membrane.

v  Joints: The place of articulation between two or more bones, or between a bone and a cartilage.

v  Locomotion: Refers to the change in place of an organism.

v  Movement: Refers to the change in position of an organ or organism.

v  Myoglobin: An oxygen storing red coloured protein.

v  Myosin: Contractile protein forming thick filaments in the sarcoplasm of a muscle fibre.

v  Osteoporosis: Age dependent deterioration of bone, which makes the later fragile and prone to fracture.

v  Pannus: Abnormal granules secreted by the synovial membrane on inflammation causing erosion of cartilage.

v  Tropomyosin: Rod shaped fibrous protein forming two helical strands wrapped around the F- actin.

v  Troponin: Small globular protein, which masks the active sites on the F-actin.

                           ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:

v  Cervical Vertebrae: Most mammals have 7 cervical vertebrae but some mammals possess less than 7 or more than 7 cervical vertebrae. For example: 6 in two toed sloth (Choloepus), 9 in three toed sloth (Brandypus), 8 in ant bear (Tamandua), 6 in manatee (Trichechus).

v  Types of Vertebrae: On the basis of shape of the Centrum, vertebrae are of following types:   (i) Procoelous: Centrum is concave anteriorly and convex posteriorly , e.g., typical vertebrae of frog, lizard and snakes.

        (ii) Amphicoelous: Centrum is concave at both ends, e.g., vertebrae of most fishes and 8th vertebra of frog.

      (iii) Acoelous or amphiplatyan: Centrum is flat at both ends, without a concavity, e.g., vertebrae of most mammals, 9th vertebra of frog.

      (iv)  Heterocoelous: The Centrum is like a saddle, e.g., vertebrae of birds.

      (v) Opisthocoelus: Posterior face of Centrum is concave and anterior face is convex, e.g., vertebrae of tailed amphibians.

v  Smallest Bone: Stapes.

v  Longest Bone: Femur.

v  Strongest Bone: Shin bone (Tibia).

v  Longest Muscle/Tailor Muscle: Sartorius.

v  Largest Muscle: Gluteus maximus (buttock muscle).

v  Smallest Muscle: Stapedius (which controls the stapes).

v  Sesamoid Bones: An oval nodule of bone or fibrocartilage a seed of sesame (till) in shape, e.g., patella (knee cap).

v  Investing or Dermal or Membrane Bones: Bones developing in the dermis of the skin as plate and sink to get attached over the cartilaginous endoskeleton, e.g., frontal, nasals, vomers and parietals of the skull.

v  Cartilaginous or Replacing Bones: Develop from the pre-existing cartilage and practically replace the cartilage, also called endochondrial bones, e.g., humerus, femur.

v  Visceral Bones: Formed in soft organs, e.g., os cordis in the cattle heart, os penis in bat penis.

v  Wish Bone (Merry Thought): A V-shaped bone formed by union of clavicles and interclavicles in birds.

v  Myology: Study of muscles.

v  Osteology: Study of skeleton.

v  Kineseology: Study of body movements.

v  Arthrology: Study of joints.

v  Rigor Mortis: Rigidity of muscles that occurs after death. It disappears some fifteen to  twenty five hours after death as proteins are degraded.

v  Summation: When a second stimulus is given to a muscle which is still contracting in response to the first stimulus, the second contraction is stronger than normal. This effect is called mechanical summation.

v  Isotonic Contraction: Muscle shortens and the part containing it moves and lifts or pushes a load.

v  Isometric Contraction: Muscle becomes tense but does not shorten and fails to move the load.

v  Muscular Atropy: Decrease in muscle size due to disuse or damaged innervation.

Muscular Hypertrophy: Enlargement of individual muscle fibres to compensate for the damaged muscle fibres.

Mr. A. KINGSLIN M.Sc, BEd, Phd,(doing)

Post Graduate Teacher in Botany
St. Mary Goretty Hr. Sec School, Manalikarai 
Kanyakumari district

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