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NEURAL CONTROL AND COORDINATION

IMPORTANT TERMS:

v   Action Potential: Potential change that occurs in an axon on stimulation of a nerve fibre.

v   Adrenergic Fibres: Fibres that release adrenaline at the terminal end.

v   Adrenergic Nerve Fibres: The nerve fibres which secrete nor-adrenaline (as neurotransmitter) at their synapse/terminations.

v   Afferent Neurons: The neurons which conduct nerve impulses from the peripheral tissues and organs to CNS.

v   Cranial Nerves: The nerves arising from different parts of the brain.

v   Cholinergic Fibres: Fibres that release acetylcholine at the terminal end.

v   Cholinergenic Nerve Fibres: The nerve fibres which secrete acetylecholine (as neurotransmitter) at their synapses/ terminations.

v   Efferent Neurons: The neurons which conduct nerve impulses from CNS to the peripheral tissues and organs.

v   Extroception: Sensing (conscious or unconscious awareness) of the external environment.

v   Ganglia: Neurons clustered in the PNS.

v   Grey Matter: Part of CNS consisting of cell bodies, dendrites and synapses of neurons.

v   Introception: Sensing (conscious or unconscious awareness) of the internal environment.

v   Motor Nerve: The nerve which consists of only efferent nerve fibres and conducts the nerve impulses from the CNS to the peripheral tissues and organs.

v   Mixed Nerve: The nerve which consists of both afferent and efferent nerve fibres and conducts the nerve impulse in both the direction.

v   Nerves: Bundles of nerve fibres in the PNS.

v   Nuclei: Neurons clustered into groups within the CNS.

v   Organ of Corti: Hearing apparatus present in the middle canal of cochlea.

v   Reflex: A spontaneous, involuntary, nerve mediated activity produced at the unconscious level.

v   Resting Potential: Potential that exists in an axon at rest or without stimulation.

v   Saltatory Conduction: Conduction of nerve impulse by myelinated nerve fibre in which impulse jumps from one node of Ranvier to another.

v   Sensory Nerve: The nerve which consists of only afferent nerve fibres and conducts the nerve impulses from the peripheral tissues and organs to the CNS.

v   Spinal Nerves: The nerves which arise from different segment of the spinal cord.

v   Synapse: Space between the axon terminals of one neuron and the dendrites of another neuron.

v   Threshold Stimulus: The minimum intensity/strength of the stimulus that must be applied to the nerve fibre to stimulate it.

v   Tracts: Bundles of nerve fibres within the CNS.

v   White Matter: Part of CNS consisting of nerve fibres.

         ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

v   Amnesia: Partial or complete loss of memory.

v   Analgesia: Loss of pain without loss of tactile sense.

v   Anaesthesia: Loss of sensation or feeling.

v   Alexia: Inability to read due to the formation of a lesion in the brain.

v   Agraphia: Inability to write because of a lesion in the brain.

v   Aphasia: Inability to speak or write because of a lesion in the brain.

v   Apraxia: Inability to perform purposeful movements in the absence of paralysis.

v   Annesia: Loss or lack of memory.

v   Anosmia: Less of the sense of smell.

v   Insominia: Chronic inability to sleep when sleep is desired; anxiety and depression are common causes.

v   Electroencephalograph (EEG):An instrument to record (electroencephalogram) the electrical impulses from the brain on a paper to diagnose brain disorders.

v   Encephalomyelitis: Acute inflammation of the brain and spinal cord.

v   Brain Washing: Inducing a person to modify his attitude and behaviour in certain directions through various forms of pressure or torture.

v   Dentist Nerve: Trigeminal (Vth cranial nerve) reacts to messages of pain, so named because the dentist desensitizes it with some local anaesthetic before drilling into or pulling out a tooth.

v   Wondering Nerve: Vagus (Xth cranial nerve) has a wide distribution in the neck, thorax and abdomen. It is also a largest cranial nerve.

v   Sciatic Nerve: Largest nerve in the body.

v   Pathetic (Trochlear) Nerve: Smallest nerve in the body.

v   Protanopia: Red colour blindness.

v   Deuteranopia: Green colour blindness.

v   Tritanopia: Blue colour blindness.

v   Jacobson’s organs (Vomeronasal Organs) : These are additional olfactory organs found in amphibians, reptiles and certain lower mammals. They are best developed in snakes. In humans, they appear as rudiments in the embryo.

v   Rhinitis: Inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane.

v   Otology: Branch of medical science that deals with the study, diagnosis and treatment of the diseases of the ear and related structures.

Rhinology: Study of noise and its diseases.

Mr. A. KINGSLIN M.Sc, BEd, Phd,(doing)

Post Graduate Teacher in Botany
St. Mary Goretty Hr. Sec School, Manalikarai 
Kanyakumari district

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