Coffee with NEET Day - 4

Living world

 Biology in Ancient India 

About 740 plants and 250 animals have been mentioned in Vedic literature. Few significant references in old literature are, 

1. Chandyogya Upanishad:      

Here the animals have been classified into three categories. 

    i) Jivaja (Viviparous) 

         Ex. Mammals

    ii) Andaja (Oviparous) 

        Ex. Birds, reptiles, insects and worms. 

   iii) Udbhija (Vegetal origin) 

        Ex. Small animals

2. Susruta Samhita (600 B. C)        

Here organisms were classified into

       i) Sthavara in which immobile organisms like plants were kept. 

      ii) Jangama in which mobile organisms like animals were placed. 

Medical science in Ancient India. 

Two Ashwini Kumars has been said to be practising medicine during Vedic times. Dhanvantari has been called as 'God of medicine'. Susruta has been called as 'Father of surgery'. 

Few important references. 

1. Susruta studied human anatomy on dead bodies. 

2. Susruta carried plastic surgery on human nose (rhinoplasty). 

3. Ophthalmic surgery. 

Susruta carried an eye surgery like extraction of cataracts. 

4. Clotting of blood. 

Susruta used non-poisonous live leeches for checking clotting of blood in post operative conditions. Now it's clearly established that hirudin is released along saliva of leeches to produce this kind of effect. 

5. Charaka Samhita (100 B. C) 

It is said to be primarily written by Agnivesa under the guidance of Atreya (600 B. C). Charaka was first to discuss the concepts of digestion, metabolism and immunity.

Dr. A. KINGSLIN M.Sc, BEd, Phd

Post Graduate Teacher in Botany
St. Mary Goretty Hr. Sec School, Manalikarai 
Kanyakumari district


  1. Hi kingslin.I am sujatha.Nice presentation.Iam your B.Ed classmet


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