Coffee with NEET Day - 7



Living world

 System of Biological classification 

 

1. Artificial system of classifications. 

 Aristotle. 

 He also classified animals on the basis of habitat into water, land and air. 

Theophrastus (370 B. C to 285 B. C). 

In his book De Historia plantarum, he classified about 500 kinds of plants into four major groups; trees, shrubs, subshrubs and herbs.  

 John Ray.  

He was a British botanist who published three volumes of his work Historia Generalish Plantarum consisting of improved classification originally proposed by him in Methodus Plantarum Noven. He coined the term species. 

Carolus Linnaeus. 

 Father of taxonomy. He published several manuscripts including Hortus cliffortianus and Genera plantarum(1737). He published his best known species plantarum in 1753.

2. Natural system of classification. 

 Carolus Linnaeus. 

 The first natural system of animal classification was developed by Linnaeus in his book 'Systema Naturae' (10th edition 1758). Improvements were subsequently made by Haeckel(1864) and Lankester (1874). 

George Bentham (1800-1884) and Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911). 

They published their well known scheme of classification in Genera plantarum (1862- 83).

3. Phylogenetic system of classification. 

 A. W. Eichler.

 A German botanist who proposed phylogenetic system of classification and published in the third edition of Syllabus der vorlesungen (1883). 

Adolph Engler (1844-1930) and Karl Prantl (1849- 1893).

These two German botantists classified plant kingdom on the basis of their evolutionary sequences. 

C. E. Bessey (1845-1915) 

He classified flowering plants on the basis of their evolutionary relationships. 

John Hutchinson (1884-1972). 

A British botanist published his phylogenetic system of classification in 'The Families of flowering plants'. 

Armen Takhtajan (1980). 

A Russian botanist who published his system of classification in Botanical Review. 

Arthur Cronquist (1981). 

 Published his classification in 'An Integrated system of classification of flowering plants'. 

 Phylogenetic system of classification for animals given by Dobzhansky and Mayr. 

New systematics or Biosystematics. 

The term new systematics was proposed by Sir Julian Huxley in 1940.

In the new systematics, the species are considered related to one another, mutable and the work of gradual modification. 

Forms of new systematics. 

   1. Morphotaxonomy

    2. Cytotaxonomy

    3. Biochemical taxonomy or chemotaxonomy

   4. Numerical taxonomy

   5. Experimental taxonomy

   6. Karyotaxonomy. 


Dr. A. KINGSLIN M.Sc, BEd, Phd

Post Graduate Teacher in Botany
St. Mary Goretty Hr. Sec School, Manalikarai 
Kanyakumari district



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